Onderzoeksresultaten

De krachtige verbeteringen die bereikt worden door toepassing van de HeartMath technieken zijn gebaseerd op meer dan 12 jaar diepgaand onderzoek. De centrale vraag in dit onderzoek was aanvankelijk wat de sleutel is tot hogere prestaties onder stress. Het onderzoek wees uit dat die ligt bij het hart en dat de variabiliteit van het hartritme (HRV) de belangrijkste indicator is. In de loop van het onderzoek bleek het hartritme niet alleen van essentieel belang voor het functioneren, ook in gezondheidsopzicht bleek het cruciaal.

HeartMath heeft twee zaken onderzocht of laten onderzoeken:

  • Verbanden tussen het hart –het lichaam – het brein
  • Technieken om één en ander te beïnvloeden

Enkele conclusies:

  • Hoge prestaties komen voort uit een optimale balans tussen onze mentale, emotionele en fysiologische gesteldheid.
  • Emotionele stress is waarschijnlijk de grootste oorzaak van achterblijvende prestaties. Stress reductie is de sleutel voor een verbetering van gezondheid en prestatie, alleen ontspanning is daarbij niet genoeg.
  • De werking van ons hart wordt sterk bepaald door onze emoties. Het hart heeft op zijn beurt weer een diepgaand effect op het functioneren van onze cognitieve functie, zoals de helderheid van ons denken, de strategische beslissingen die we nemen en de manier waarop we communiceren.
    • Negatieve emoties zoals frustratie resulteren in een chaotisch hart ritme, wat kan leiden tot verminderd functioneren van het brein (cortical inhibition).
    • Focussen op een positieve emotie leidt tot een harmonisch hartritme, wat resulteert in meer helderheid van denken (cortical facilitation).
  • De verbinding tussen hart en brein kan door de individu beïnvloed worden, resulterend in significante verbeteringen in gezondheid, welbevinden en prestatie.

Voor meer informatie zie:

 http://www.heartmathbenelux.com/index.php?id=12&sec=0&lang=nl

 

“HeartMath is a unique stress reductions system that is unusually effective for reducing anxiety and improving performance. Unlike many other products and services that make similar claims, it has a solid scientific basis, and has been thoroughly tested in a variety of settings that have clearly demonstrated these benefits.”

Paul J. Rosch, M.D., F.A.C.P., President of the American Institute of Stress and Clinical Professor of Medicine and Psychiatry, New York Medical College. 

In 2003 is hun onderzoek beloond met de TMC labs innovation award voor het Freeze-Framer® bio-feedback systeem. Research studies van HeartMath zijn onder andere opgenomen in de The American Journal of Cardiology, Journal for advancement in Medicine en Stress Magazine en de Harvard Business Review.

Research Publications

Within each grouping, entries are ordered by year of publication, with most recent publications listed first.

* Studies marked by an asterisk are listed under more than one heading.
† Signifies studies conducted by independent institutions.


Basic Research—Psychophysiology of Emotions and Heart–Brain Interactions

Emotional Stress, Positive Emotions, and Psychophysiological Coherence
R. McCraty, D. Tomasino
Chapter published in: Stress in Health and Disease,
edited by B. B. Arnetz and R. Ekman. Weinheim, Germany, Wiley-VCH, 2006: 342-365.

The Grateful Heart: The Psychophysiology of Appreciation
R. McCraty, D. Childre
Chapter published in: The Psychology of Gratitude,
edited by R. A. Emmons and M. E. McCullough. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004: 230-255.
Expanded version of this chapter available as an electronic monograph: The Appreciative Heart: The Psychophysiology of Positive Emotions and Optimal Functioning

Heart Rhythm Coherence - An Emerging Area of Biofeedback
R. McCraty
Biofeedback 2002;30(1):23-25.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy of Brain Activation During Heart Rhythm Coherence(Abstract)
T. Richards, R. McCraty, M. Atkinson
In: Toward a Science of Consciousness Conference Proceedings, Neuroscience section, Abstract #111, Tucson, AZ, 2002.

Influence of Cardiac Afferent Input on Heart-Brain Synchronization and Cognitive Performance (Abstract)
R. McCraty
International Journal of Psychophysiology 2002;45(1-2):72-73.
A detailed description of this research is provided in the scientific monograph The Coherent Heart: Heart-Brain Interactions, Psychophysiological Coherence, and the Emergence of System-Wide Order.

Psychophysiological Correlates of Spiritual Experience
D. Childre, R. McCraty
Biofeedback 2001;29(4):13-17.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

Psychophysiological Coherence: A Proposed Link Among Appreciation, Cognitive Performance, and Health (Abstract)
R. McCraty
Paper presented at the American Psychological Association 109th Annual Convention, Symposium on Gratitude and Positive Emotionality as Links Between Social and Clinical Science, San Francisco, CA, August 2001.

The Heart Reinnervates After Transplantation
D. A. Murphy, G. W. Thompson, J. L. Ardell, R. McCraty, R. S. Stevenson, V. E. Sangalang, R. Cardinal, M. Wilkinson, S. Craig, F. M. Smith, J. G. Kingma, J. A. Armour
Annals of Thoracic Surgery 2000;69(6):1769-1781.

Psychophysiological Coherence: A Link between Positive Emotions, Stress Reduction, Performance and Health (Abstract)
R. McCraty
In: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Congress on Stress, Mauna Lani Bay, HI, 2000.

The emWave ® PC Stress Relief System: A Stress Management Training and Heart Rhythm Education System for Increasing Physiological Coherence (Abstract)
R. McCraty
In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Montreux Congress on Stress, Montreux, Switzerland, 1999.

The Effects of Different Types of Music on Mood, Tension, and Mental Clarity
R. McCraty, B. Barrios-Choplin, M. Atkinson, D. Tomasino
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 1998:4(1):75-84.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

Cardiac Coherence: A New, Noninvasive Measure of Autonomic System Order
R. McCraty, W. A. Tiller, M. Atkinson
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 1996;2(1):52-65.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

Head-Heart Entrainment: A Preliminary Survey
R. McCraty, W. A. Tiller, M. Atkinson
Paper presented at the Key West Brain-Mind, Applied Neurophysiology, EEG Biofeedback 4th Annual Advanced Colloquium, Key West, FL, 1996.

Music Enhances the Effect of Positive Emotional States on Salivary IgA*
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, G. Rein, A. D. Watkins
Stress Medicine 1996;12(3):167-175.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

The Physiological and Psychological Effects of Compassion and Anger*
G. Rein, R. McCraty, M. Atkinson
Journal of Advancement in Medicine 1995;8(2):87-105.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

The Effects of Emotions on Short-Term Power Spectrum Analysis of Heart Rate Variability*
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, W. A. Tiller, G. Rein, A. D. Watkins
American Journal of Cardiology 1995;76(14):1089-1093.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

New Electrophysiological Correlates Associated With Intentional Heart Focus
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, W. A. Tiller, G. Rein
Subtle Energies 1995;4(3):251-262.


Clinical and Health Research

Heart Rhythm Coherence Feedback: A New Tool for Stress Reduction, Rehabilitation, and Performance Enhancement
R. McCraty, D. Tomasino
In: Proceedings of the First Baltic Forum on Neuronal Regulation and Biofeedback, Riga, Latvia, November 2-5, 2004.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

Impact of a Workplace Stress Reduction Program on Blood Pressure and Emotional Health in Hypertensive Employees*
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, D. Tomasino
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2003;9(3):355-369.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

Impact of the Power to Change Performance Program on Stress and Health Risks in Correctional Officers*
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, L. Lipsenthal, L. Arguelles
HeartMath Research Center, Institute of HeartMath, Report No. 03-014. Boulder Creek CA, November 2003.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

A Controlled Pilot Study of Stress Management Training of Elderly Patients With Congestive Heart Failure
F. Luskin, M. Reitz, K. Newell, T. G. Quinn, W. Haskell
Preventive Cardiology 2002;5(4):168-172, 176.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

Analysis of Twenty-Four Hour Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Panic Disorder
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, D. Tomasino, W. P. Stuppy
Biological Psychology 2001;56(2):131-150.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

Emotional Self-Regulation Program Enhances Psychological Health and Quality of Life in Patients with Diabetes
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, L. Lipsenthal
HeartMath Research Center, Institute of HeartMath, Publication No. 00-006. Boulder Creek, CA, 2000.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

Music and the Immune System (Abstract)
R. McCraty
In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Montreux Congress on Stress, Montreux, Switzerland, 1999.

Twenty-Four Hour Time Domain Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate: Relations to Age and Gender Over Nine Decades
K. Umetani, D. H. Singer, R. McCraty, M. Atkinson
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 1998;31(3):593-601.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

The Impact of a New Emotional Self-Management Program on Stress, Emotions, Heart Rate Variability, DHEA and Cortisol
R. McCraty, B. Barrios-Choplin, D. Rozman, M. Atkinson, A. D. Watkins
Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 1998;33(2):151-170.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

The Effects of Different Emotional States and a New Stress Management Intervention on Autonomic Regulation of the Heart (Abstract)
R. McCraty
In: Cardiovascular Health: Coming Together for the 21st Century, Proceedings, San Francisco CA, 1998.

Assessment of Autonomic Function and Balance in Chronic Fatigue Patients Using 24-Hour Heart Rate Variability Analysis (Abstract)
R. McCraty, S. Lanson, M. Atkinson
Clinical Autonomic Research 1997;7(5):237.

The Autonomic Assessment Report: A New Noninvasive Measure of Autonomic Function and Balance (Abstract)
R. McCraty
In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual International Symposium on Man and His Environment in Health and Disease, Dallas TX, 1997.
The full Autonomic Assessment Report Interpretation Guide and Instructions is available as an e-book.

Cycle Length Dependency of Heart Rate Variability in Elderly with Ischemic Heart Disease (Abstract)
K. Umetani, D. H. Singer, R. McCraty, M. Atkinson
Circulation (suppl I) 1996;94(8):I-498.

A Pilot Intervention Program Which Reduces Psychological Symptomatology in Individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus
D. Rozman, R. Whitaker, T. Beckman, D. Jones
Complementary Therapies in Medicine 1996;4(4):226-232.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

Music Enhances the Effect of Positive Emotional States on Salivary IgA*
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, G. Rein, A. D. Watkins
Stress Medicine 1996;12(3):167-175.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

The Physiological and Psychological Effects of Compassion and Anger*
G. Rein, R. McCraty, M. Atkinson
Journal of Advancement in Medicine 1995;8(2):87-105.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

The Effects of Emotions on Short-Term Power Spectrum Analysis of Heart Rate Variability*
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, W. A. Tiller, G. Rein, A. D. Watkins
American Journal of Cardiology 1995;76(14):1089-1093.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version


Educational Research

Enhancing Emotional, Social, and Academic Learning with Heart Rhythm Coherence Feedback
R. McCraty
Biofeedback 2005;33(4):130-134.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

The Garden of the Heart: HeartMath—The New Biotechnology for Treating Children with ADD/ADHD and Arrhythmia
S. St. Martin
HeartMath Research Center, Institute of HeartMath, Publication No. 05-017. Boulder Creek, CA, 2005.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

The Heart in Holistic Education
L. Arguelles, R. McCraty, R. A. Rees
Encounter: Education for Meaning and Social Justice 2003:16(3):13-21.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

Improving Test-Taking Skills and Academic Performance in High School Students Using HeartMath Learning Enhancement Tools
R. McCraty, D. Tomasino, M. Atkinson, P. Aasen, S. J. Thurik
HeartMath Research Center, Institute of HeartMath, Publication No. 00-010. Boulder Creek, CA, 2000.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

The Impact of an Emotional Self-Management Skills Course on Psychosocial Functioning and Autonomic Recovery to Stress in Middle School Children
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, D. Tomasino, J. Goelitz, H. N. Mayrovitz
Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 1999;34(4):246-268.


Organizational Research

Impact of a Workplace Stress Reduction Program on Blood Pressure and Emotional Health in Hypertensive Employees*
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, D. Tomasino
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2003;9(3):355-369.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

Impact of the Power to Change Performance Program on Stress and Health Risks in Correctional Officers*
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, L. Lipsenthal, L. Arguelles
HeartMath Research Center, Institute of HeartMath, Report No. 03-014. Boulder Creek CA, November 2003.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

The Effect of Employee Self-Management Training on Personal and Organizational Quality
B. Barrios-Choplin, R. McCraty, J. Sundram, M. Atkinson
HeartMath Research Center, Institute of HeartMath, Publication No. 99-083. Boulder Creek, CA, 1999.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

Impact of the HeartMath Self-Management Skills Program on Physiological and Psychological Stress in Police Officers
R. McCraty, D. Tomasino, M. Atkinson, J. Sundram
HeartMath Research Center, Institute of HeartMath, Publication No. 99-075. Boulder Creek CA, 1999.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

An Inner Quality Approach to Reducing Stress and Improving Physical and Emotional Wellbeing at Work
B. Barrios-Choplin, R. McCraty, B. Cryer
Stress Medicine 1997;13(13):193-201.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

An Effective Stress Prevention Training: Research From Four Diverse Organizations (Abstract)
D. Rozman, R. McCraty, B. Barrios-Choplin
In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Montreux Congress on Stress, Montreux, Switzerland, 1997.


Intuition Research

Before Cognition: The Active Contribution of the Heart/ANS to Intuitive Decision Making as Measured on Repeat Entrepreneurs in the Cambridge Technopol
M. Gillin, F. La Pira, R. McCraty, R. T. Bradley, M. Atkinson, D. Simpson, P. Scicluna
Paper to be presented at the Fourth AGSE International Entrepreneurship Research Exchange, February 6–9, 2007, Brisbane, Australia.

Beyond Hyperbole and Hypothesis: A Protocol for Measuring Intuitive Behavior
F. La Pira, M. Atkinson, P. Scicluna
Paper to be presented at the Fourth AGSE International Entrepreneurship Research Exchange, February 6–9, 2007, Brisbane, Australia.

The Language of Entrepreneurship: Energetic Information Processing in Entrepreneurial Decision and Action
R. T. Bradley
Paper to be presented at the Fourth AGSE International Entrepreneurship Research Exchange, February 6–9, 2007, Brisbane, Australia.

The Psychophysiology of Entrepreneurial Intuition: A Quantum-Holographic Theory
R. T. Bradley
Paper presented at the Third AGSE International Entrepreneurship Research Exchange, February 8–10, 2006, Auckland, New Zealand.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

The Psychophysiological Basis of Creativity and Intuition: Accessing “The Zone” of Entrepreneurship
D. Tomasino
Paper presented at the Third AGSE International Entrepreneurship Research Exchange, February 8–10, 2006, Auckland, New Zealand, and accepted for publication in the International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business (2007).
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

Electrophysiological Evidence of Intuition: Part 1. The Surprising Role of the Heart
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, R. T. Bradley
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2004;10(1):133-143.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

Electrophysiological Evidence of Intuition: Part 2. A System-Wide Process?
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, R. T. Bradley
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2004;10(2):325-336.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version


Energetics Research

The Resonant Heart
R. McCraty, R. T. Bradley, D. Tomasino
Shift: At the Frontiers of Consciousness Dec. 2004-Feb. 2005; No. 5:15-19.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

The Energetic Heart: Bioelectromagnetic Communication Within and Between People
R. McCraty
Chapter published in: Clinical Applications of Bioelectromagnetic Medicine,
edited by P. J. Rosch and M. S. Markov. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2004: 541-562.
Expanded version of this chapter available as an electronic monograph: The Energetic Heart: Bioelectromagnetic Interactions Within and Between People.

Modulation of DNA Conformation by Heart-Focused Intention
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, D. Tomasino
HeartMath Research Center, Institute of HeartMath, Publication No. 03-008. Boulder Creek, CA, 2003.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

The Role of Physiological Coherence in the Detection and Measurement of Cardiac Energy Exchange Between People (Abstract)
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, W. Tiller
In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Montreux Congress on Stress, Montreux, Switzerland, 1999.

The Electricity of Touch: Detection and Measurement of Cardiac Energy Exchange Between People
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, D. Tomasino, W.A. Tiller
In: K. H. Pribram, ed. Brain and Values: Is a Biological Science of Values Possible. Proceedings of the Fifth Appalachian Conference on Behavioral Neurodynamics. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1998: 359-379.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

New Technology Provides Scientific Evidence of Water’s Capacity to Store and Amplify Weak Electromagnetic and Subtle Energy Fields
D. Tomasino
HeartMath Research Center, Institute of HeartMath, Publication No. 97-002. Boulder Creek, CA, 1997.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

Structural Changes in Water and DNA Associated with New Physiologically Measurable States
G. Rein, R. McCraty
Journal of Scientific Exploration 1994;8(3):438-439.


Scientific Monographs and e-Books

The Coherent Heart: Heart–Brain Interactions, Psychophysiological Coherence, and the Emergence of System-Wide Order
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, D. Tomasino, R. T. Bradley
HeartMath Research Center, Institute of HeartMath, Publication No. 06-022. Boulder Creek, CA, 2006.

Neurocardiology—Anatomical and Functional Principles
J. A. Armour
HeartMath Research Center, Institute of HeartMath, Publication No. 03-011. Boulder Creek, CA, 2003.

Heart–Brain Neurodynamics: The Making of Emotions
R. McCraty
HeartMath Research Center, Institute of HeartMath, Publication No. 03-015. Boulder Creek, CA, 2003.

The Energetic Heart: Bioelectromagnetic Interactions Within and Between People
R. McCraty
HeartMath Research Center, Institute of HeartMath, Publication No. 02-035. Boulder Creek, CA, 2002.

The Appreciative Heart: The Psychophysiology of Positive Emotions and Optimal Functioning
R. McCraty, D. Childre
HeartMath Research Center, Institute of HeartMath, Publication No. 02-026. Boulder Creek, CA, 2002.

Science of the Heart: Exploring the Role of the Heart in Human Performance
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson, D. Tomasino
HeartMath Research Center, Institute of HeartMath, Publication No. 01-001. Boulder Creek, CA, 2001.

Autonomic Assessment Report: A Comprehensive Heart Rate Variability Analysis—Interpretation Guide and Instructions
R. McCraty, M. Atkinson
HeartMath Research Center, Institute of HeartMath, Publication No. 96-028. Boulder Creek, CA, 1996.


Dissertations

The following dissertations involve research on the HeartMath interventions. Downloadable versions of the full dissertations will be available in the near future.


Effects of Recognition and Coping Strategies Related to Stress and Test Anxiety in Gifted 4 th Graders
Amanda Travis Simon
Action Research, University of South Florida, 2007.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

Four Years into No Child Left Behind: A Profile of California Tenth Grade Students' Well-Being and Mixed Methods Analysis of Its Associations with Academic Success
Teri Hollingsworth
Ph.D. Dissertation, Graduate Faculty of Education, Claremont Graduate University, 2007.

Resilience Among Elementary Educators as Measured by the Personal and Organizational Quality Assessment-Revised and the Emotional Quotient Inventory
Susan Lee Stockton
Ph.D. Dissertation, Graduate Faculty of Philosophy, Educational and Counseling Psychology, University of Missouri-Columbia, 2006.

Correlated Heart Rate Measures in the Study of Nonlocal Human Connectedness
Dorothy Marie Mandel
Ph.D. Dissertation, Graduate Faculty of Philosophy, Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center.

Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback Training and Emotional Regulation on Music Performance Anxiety in University Students
Myron Ross Thurber
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Texas, 2006.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

Physiological, Cognitive and Psychosocial Effects of Emotional Refocusing: A Summative and Formative Analysis
Alane Daugherty
Ph.D. Dissertation, Graduate Faculty of Education, Claremont Graduate University, 2006.

The Social Psychology of Reading/Language Arts Achievement
Kimberley Hartnett-Edwards
Ph.D. Dissertation, Graduate Faculty of Education, Claremont Graduate University, 2006.

What High-Stakes Testing Means for the Emotional Well-Being of Students and Teachers
Laurie Schroeder
Ph.D. Dissertation, Graduate Faculty of Education, Claremont Graduate University, 2006.

The Effects of States of Compassionate Presence on People in Comatose States Near Death
Jeanne Denney
Masters Dissertation, Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, 2006.
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) version

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